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In 1968, the great English writer Rudyard Kipling published the short story ” The cat that walked by itself .” Tale , in which he told his version of how people make friends with cats , known to everyone since childhood . But despite the fascination of this story , this version of the domestication of cats is not scientific .
Zoologists , archaeologists and paleontologists for many years exploring this question. The exact date of the first appearance of the cat in the house of a man is still unknown . Today we can not imagine life without these furry creatures , but why are they needed our forefathers ?
New research in the field of archeology claim that cats could be the first domesticated by the ancient Chinese farmers from the village Tsyuanhutsun (Quanhucun) about 5300 years ago.
” There are at least three different areas of research , allowing us to better know the history of cat domestication . Our data suggest that the cats themselves came to farming village as there were many rodents that were fed grain, gathered people , “- says a new study co-author Fiona Marshall (Fiona Marshall) from Washington University in St. Louis.
History of domestication of cats is difficult to recover because their remains are rarely found in ancient archaeological sites . Initially it was thought that these animals first began to live with a man about 4,000 years ago in ancient Egypt. But recent studies indicate that cat and human friendship began much earlier . This is evidenced by the newly discovered burial cat on Cyprus , dating back to the eighth millennium BC .
Note that the theory ” samoodomashnivaniya ” cats , ie version, according to which the animals themselves have decided to live next to people who were not too popular. But in addition to Marshall and her colleagues from the United States were engaged in this study and fellow ancient farmers. Yaou Hu (Yaowu Hu) and his team from the Chinese Academy of Sciences analyzed eight bones belonging to at least two ancient cats that were found at the site of an ancient village Tsyuanhutsun .
Scientists used radiocarbon dating and isotopic analysis of traces of carbon and nitrogen in the bones of cats, dogs , deer and other animals , whose remains were found in this location . After careful examination of data from Hu and his colleagues no doubt : cats independently came to the man created for themselves a separate niche in society and played an important role in the lives of ancient people. These and other findings can read more in an article published in the journal PNAS.
Radioisotope analysis results also showed that rodents, domestic pigs and dogs were fed grain that farmers have grown and deer refused this food . Cats also eat mostly rodents, and there were many in the village . During excavations uncovered pots for storage of grain , which were stuff is made so that the mouse could not climb inside. This means that people did suffer from pests and cats rid them of this problem.
However, they were not secret saviors of people who came out to hunt only at night and during the day hidden from human eyes . After examining the remains of one of the cats , scientists have determined that she died at the ripe old age , and therefore comfortably lived in the village for many years . Analysis of the remains of another individual pointed out that she regularly fed grain, which it clearly fed farmers .
The outcome of the left and unsolved questions. Since the vast majority of modern pets are descendants of Middle Eastern steppe cat , you need to understand if the villagers Tsyuanhutsun its direct descendants . Unfortunately , DNA analysis has not be able to spend , but if scientists can prove that cats are descended from the village Tsyuanhutsun Middle Eastern steppe cats (which are not found in China) , it would mean that they are not domesticated ancient Chinese farmers , and even older people and then the animals were brought to the village just outside.
Currently studying this question engaged French and Chinese scientists . Any results of new work will help to learn more about the history of domestication.
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Imagine a journey into the tens and hundreds of millions of years, long before we – human , technocratic civilization mobile phones, computers and the Internet.
Sinking further and further into the past you will witness a dramatic change in the world. First, before you take a few turns with giant glacial glaciers, through dry and cold steppes, it is important to go herds of mammoths , and then with small waves wash over the south of the Tethys Sea .
The familiar Carpathians gradually disappear in its waters , and only in the west to rise Marmaros islands , far to the south of Ukraine – the volcano Karadag , and on its eastern archipelago Donetsk ridge . And so on throughout the Mesozoic era. The continents will converge around until it closed, in a single supercontinent Pangvana , where in place of Ukraine – in a large bay – the warm sea lapping . We have reached a level of 225 million years from the present day – the late Triassic period – the time of birth of the dinosaurs.
Huge continent crossing the Earth from the northern to the southern pole . Currently, there have been only major faults , which in the future will give rise to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, but now in their place rise high mountains . Mountain range with deep lakes and faults that separates North America, Europe and Asia from South America and Africa , stretches for thousands of kilometers away from the equator to the modern Ukraine. In the southern hemisphere , the same mountainous country separated South America and Africa from Antarctica , Australia and India. Will not have much time and Pangvana splits into three huge continent, but now the original Earth has united .
The huge expanse of Pangvany life rages , it only revived after the catastrophic collapse of two asteroids that marked the end of the Paleozoic Era. Tropical and equatorial rain forest with tree and seed ferns , cycads , Gnetova , and other gymnosperms Ginkgo trees cover the foot of the river valley and the mountains in the center of the continent . The banks of the tropical seas emerald belt fringe mangrove forests of gymnosperms and stsitofilyumiv pahipterisiv . Dry savanna , with alternating rainy and dry periods , commonly extend over large tropical plains. Thick Ginkgoaceae and Araucarites forest dominated by northern and southern reaches Pangvany . And there, where the mountains overshadow the land from the warm and humid monsoon stretch of barren desert. And all those spaces inhabited by a wide variety of reptiles, which are only able to see the original Earth. However, it was the end of the Triassic period, the era of reptiles, they were replaced by new creatures – are more adapted , faster and smarter – are dinosaurs . In the Triassic period, they are still few and very far from the dominant group of vertebrates.
And although it Triassic era reptiles, but a vast expanse of forests , mountains and savannah – anywhere where there is soft ground , and where you can dig a hole, inhabit sinapsidy – primitive mammals . They are most numerous vertebrates this time, but are forced to live in the shadow of the giant reptiles – zuhy . The largest predators Triassic period is raizuhii , is a prime example of their postozuhus , 10 – 15- meter reptile with meter jaws, studded , similar to daggers teeth.
Near the ancient postozuhusamy live , but they are not less terrible predators – three-meter ornitozuhusy that walk on their hind legs . And postozuhusy and ornitozuhusy hunt herds of herbivorous reptiles etozavry who were peacefully grazing in the savannah and forests. In the waters of lakes and rivers, having hidden , waiting for their prey and ancient reptiles fitozavrii krokodilomorfy . Externally , these predators are very similar , but krokodilomorf as these and crocodiles nose located at the end of the nose, and fitozavry – between the eyes. And amidst all this kingdom of reptiles and mammals appeared a strange animal – lagozuhus – from the outside looks like a creeping thing, but with a very slender body , long legs and short forelegs . However , it is not a reptile , but still not a dinosaur.
In fact , dinosaurs were reptiles , they are very different from reptiles, primarily skeletal structure . If reptiles are set wide apart on the sides of the body limbs , the dinosaurs , like birds and mammals , the limbs were vertically under the body . A second major difference in the structure of the skeleton – a cross-cutting glenoid cavity in the pelvis, whereas in reptiles it is closed . In addition , the dinosaurs were warm-blooded, as early as 1960 wrote to Dr. Robert T. Baker – American paleontologist . The assertion that dinosaurs were reptiles , it’s the same thing as to say that birds are reptiles . Actually between birds and dinosaurs is now very difficult to make any clear distinction , because the archeopteryx , avimimusy , kompsognatusy , Oviraptor , Microraptor , and many, many others have been feathered . And between birds and dinosaurs are extremely many transitional forms, so now some are calling birds living dinosaurs.
The irony is that having significant benefits, the first dinosaurs could not compete with the many zuhiyamy and sinapsidamy . It was only after the fall on the primitive Earth once the asteroid that left a 70 – kilometer crater and Manikogana in northern Quebec (Canada ) , ancient reptiles and sinapsidy except mammals have become extinct , giving the possibility of dinosaurs inhabit the whole earth for the next 160 million years .
On the Atlantic coast of the United States is growing short predatory flower – Rain spiders , insects and mollusks. It – The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). She – a representative of the family rosyankovyh (Droseraceae) and belongs to the genus Dionaea . Venus flytrap flower with unusual speed to the plant closes its brightly colored leaves traps dotted around the edges sharp and long spines. Immediate response is a reflex , but the victim is touch-sensitive hairs on the surface. Slamming tight butterfly leaf out of the trap at once turns the stomach flycatchers , where begins the digestion of another portion of food. Venus Flytrap – a plant that is even a stretch not be called a lover of fast food : a full 10 days will be a process of savoring and digesting food . And after this period sash again leering unfold , involving a new victim . They can see an empty shell chitin – all that remains of the insect. In this way, Venus flytrap compensates for the lack of waterlogged soil nitrogen , necessary for it to form a protein and its continued growth. Not without mishap with the name of this plant. It is very likely that gave him some daydreaming agrobotanik . After muscipula in Latin means not ” flytrap ” and ” Mousetrap .” Venus Flytrap – a flower sufficiently seasoned and well adapted to seasonal changes in temperature. On his American home, he did not die on a roll of snow, but can not withstand frost is quite rare . In winter, there is only the lower rosette of leaves , to the ground . As a flag to let you know just languishing in the depths of life. A period of rest. And with the first rays of spring begins the next stage of life in the guise of the Venus flytrap – trap . Pour juice short underground stem in the form of bulbs . Will rosette of leaves , which grow to a diameter of 10 cm These leaves (up to 7 units) will appear in series one above the other , like the floors. At the same time the first leaves seem stalks with white flowers . When they ottsvetut , the leaves turn into a trap . Each can digest some insects increases after each addition of 1/4 of its maximum size.
On territorii zapovednika , on the border of land and morya , svoeobraznye climate faktory and orograficheskie osobennosti sposobstvovali formirovaniyu and sohraneniyu unique floristicheskih , fauna and landscape kompleksov without analogov not tolko in Crimea , Nr and Ukraine.
The local floru sostavlyayut vidov 766 452 of them are of the highest sosudistye plants , 16 – mohoobraznye , 113 – lichens, 176 – vodorosli . Endemic yadro zapovednika – 48 vidov sosudistyh plants. Rare fond zapovednika sosudistyh represented 23 species of plants listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. Among them machok yellow (Glaucium flavum), pion tonkolistny (Paeonia tenuifolia), colored orchids (Orchis picta), spiny dogfish Mithridates (Crambe mitridatis), spiny dogfish Koktebel (Crambe koktehelica), coastal morkovnitsa (Astrodaucus littoralis), dvutsvetkovy tulip (Tulipa biflora) Schrenk and tulip (Tulipa schrenkii) and six vidov kovyley ( Stira brauneri, S.capillata, S.lessingiana, S.pontica, S.tirsa, S.pulcherrima) and others.
Fauna zapovednika has stepnoy character has bolee 1000 vidov , bolshinstvo of kotoryh ( 74.8 protsenta ) are invertebrates zhivotnymi . Among pozvonochnyh – more than 30 vidov mlekopitayuschih , more than 205 – birds, 9 – reptiles , 3 -, and 55 amphibians – fish. Occasional fauna includes 72 species listed in the Red Book of Ukraine , 8 – to Evropeysky Red spisok , 87 – are in Bernskoy konventsii .
On territorii , akvatorii and okrestnostyah zapovednika ustanovleno stay bolee 205 vidov birds. They nest at least 54 vidov of kotoryh 11 – Open in grassy and okolo 17 – in the rocky biotopah . Winter in zapovednike least 33 vidov . Okolo 112 vidov otnosyatsya to proletnym .
Ornitofauna Reserve and adjacent areas includes more than 40 rare species listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. Among them – the crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax aristotelis), ogar (Tadorna ferruginea), baloban (Falco cherrug), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), hen harrier (Circus cyaneus), Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), steppe Crane (Anthropoides virgo), drofa ( Otis tarda), little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), Stone Curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus), avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), stilt (Himantopus himantopus), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), pink starling (Sturnus roseus), gray shrike (Lanius excubitor), black- ovsyanka (Emberiza melanocephala) and others.
Territoriya Opuk vhodit the list of IBA territory of Ukraine , which are important for sohraneniya populyatsy birds within Evropy .
Among mlekopitayuschih are common fox (Vulpes vulpes), wolf (Canis lupus), brown hare (Lepus europaeus), a small ground squirrel (Spermophilus pygmaeus), weasel (Mustela nivalis), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) , a small white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), immunodeficient mouse (Mus spicilegus) as well as rare zhivotnye : steppe horek (Mustela eversmanni), great jerboa (Allactaga major), steppe birch mouse (Sicista subtilis Pallas, 1773) , eared (Myotis oxygnathus Monticelli, 1885 ) and whiskered (Myotis mystacinus Kuhl, 1817 ), bats , bolshoy (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber, 1774 ) and small (Rhinolophus hipposideros Bechstein, 1800) horseshoe , netopyr sredizemnomorsky (Pipistrellus kuhlii Kuhl, 1817 ) and the dwarf bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus Schreber, 1774 ), etc.
In the marine reserve of akvatorii vidov listed in the Red Book of Ukraine , can be found : morskogo konka (Hippocampus guttulatus), gray peskarku (Callionymus risso), morskogo cock (Chelidonichthy lucerna), lososya chernomorskogo (Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814) , bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and azovku (Phocoena phocoena relicta Abel, 1905), and the gray seal (Halichoerus grypus).
Among rakoobraznyh postoyannymi obitatelyami zapovednika are crabs – a stone (Eriphia verrucosa), mramorny (Pachygrapsus marmoratus), grass (Carcinus aestuarii) and volosaty (Pilumnus hirtellus). Dostatochno large populyatsii rare reptiles : zheltopuzik (Pseudopus apodus Pallas, 1775 ) , zheltobryuhy runner (Dolichophis caspius Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1789 ) and the Sarmatian snake (Elaphe sauromates Pallas, [ 1814 ]), which obitayut izvestnyakovyh in crevices and rossypyah .
” Aquatic coastal kompleks at Cape Opuk ” ploschadyu 775 hectares, included in the list vodno – bolotnyh ugody mezhdunarodnogo importance ( Ramsar konventsiya ) in 2004 godu .
Did you know that the kiwi fruit owes its name to the bird kiwi, and not vice versa. Generally kiwi comes from China, so it is sometimes called Chinese gooseberries. Cultural same kind kiwi was first launched in New Zealand in 1940. From the original Chinese version of the New Zealand kiwi differs greatly increase weight: about 100 grams and more than 30 grams of native Chinese kiwi. It was in the New Zealand kiwi were first grown commercially. And it is in this country have come up with the name known to all now: in advertising “new” product was given the same name as the kiwi bird – the national symbol of New Zealand. This is due to some similarities with brown kiwi fruit rounded body birdies.
And here is how the bird itself:
Did you know that the sex of turtles is temperature dependent. Typically, sex is determined by the turtles in the second trimester of development. Sex baby about to be born in this period depends on the average temperature in the “nest.” At high temperature, are born female, low – males.
Remarkably, regardless of the turtle species and constant its environment (sea or land) and the females lay eggs only on land. Before that, they tend to hinder legs pitcher dig a hole, which is then poured and compacted shell strikes. The number of eggs in one clutch varies from a few to 100. The more the tortoise, the more eggs in her clutch. And the cooler is in the “nest” and, accordingly, the more males were born.
Did you know that, as a rule, the proud title of mammals fully justified only females. Most of the males can be called unless the “mammal”, and that in the early days of his life, and then turns into a feeding dirtiest. However, males are brown bats (Dyacopterus spadecius), living in Malaysia, both males and flying dogs (Pteropus capistrastus) from Papua New Guinea have developed breasts and capable of lactation. It would seem that their halves incredibly lucky – share responsibility for the care of a pious offspring, live and be happy! But as it is not so. As the biology of bats is poorly understood, scientists still do not know, but if the kids fall to anything from his father’s milk.
Did you know that in nature there is an immortal being – it jellyfish Turritopsis Nutricula. Medusa is very small – the size of its only 4-5 mm, it looks ugly, but it was her nature gave a unique gift – samoomolozheniya. In general, these animals found in the Mediterranean Sea in 1883, but the unusual property of eternal youth discovered only in 1990.
Medusa is unique in that it can from adulthood to return to the state of the polyp. And so countless times. This ability makes it theoretically immortal jellyfish. That is, of course, these jellyfish are killed, but his death is not quite in the quantities as I would like a scientist. The fact that a large number of jellyfish, do not die a natural death, threatens to upset the balance of the oceans. But until the balance is broken, scientists are actively exploring these unique creatures, as their mechanism of rejuvenation may well be used as a tool to fight cancer and even as a solution to the problem of aging.
Did you know that in 1760 the Paris College of Physicians and the Faculty of Theology attributed to the class of beavers fish. It was motivated by the fact that the beavers scaly tail. In practical terms, this meant that, for example, the French settlers in North America had a chance to eat beavers (who was there in large quantities) in Lent and other fast days, which, for sure, loved the settlers, because, as they say, to beaver tail taste like roast beef.
In fact, the beaver, of course, belongs to the class of mammals, and quite impressive size. Beavers are bigger than you might think. After the adult size of a beaver on eight children. These amazing animals builders many remarkable features of the structure of the body, for example, transparent eyelids (almost scoring for diving), ganging ear holes and nostrils, and the lips, which are closed for the front teeth, making animal immersed in water a little that is waterproof, so also can chew swing.
Did you know that you are well-known trees, able to withstand the most extreme cold. Larch (Latin larix), which is one of the most common species of conifers, is listed in Guinness World Records as “the most frost-proof tree.” It is believed that in the north of Larch withstand temperatures of at least up to -65 ° C.
Larch can reach 50 meters in height and age of 300-400 years (although these values are exceeded easily separate instances). The interesting fact that, despite the high prevalence and high quality larch wood (larch and it is very durable and extremely resistant to decay), a larch accounts for a relatively small portion of the total harvest in Russia. Apparently, the main reason is that because of the high density of larch wood sinks in water and can not be fused in the rivers, which of course greatly affect the possibility and the cost of transportation.
By the way, this fact can be seen from the other side – once only larch can withstand temperatures down to -65 ° C, then the other trees at these temperatures do not survive.